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Babak Mohammadi

Doctoral student

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Enhancing Rainfall-Runoff Simulation via Meteorological Variables and a Deep-Conceptual Learning-Based Framework


  • Mohammed Achite
  • Babak Mohammadi
  • Muhammad Jehanzaib
  • Nehal Elshaboury
  • Quoc Bao Pham
  • Zheng Duan

Summary, in English

Accurate streamflow simulation is crucial for many applications, such as optimal reservoir operation and irrigation. Conceptual techniques employ physical ideas and are suitable for representing the physics of the hydrologic model, but they might fail in competition with their more advanced counterparts. In contrast, deep learning (DL) approaches provide a great computational capability for streamflow simulation, but they rely on data characteristics and the physics of the issue cannot be fully understood. To overcome these limitations, the current study provided a novel framework based on a combination of conceptual and DL techniques for enhancing the accuracy of streamflow simulation in a snow-covered basin. In this regard, the current study simulated daily streamflow in the Kalixälven river basin in northern Sweden by integrating a snow-based conceptual hydrological model (MISD) with a DL model. Daily precipitation, air temperature (average, minimum, and maximum), dew point temperature, evapotranspiration, relative humidity, sunshine duration, global solar radiation, and atmospheric pressure data were used as inputs for the DL model to examine the effect of each meteorological variable on the streamflow simulation. Results proved that adding meteorological variables to the conceptual hydrological model underframe of parallel settings can improve the accuracy of streamflow simulating by the DL model. The MISD model simulated streamflow had an MAE = 8.33 (cms), r = 0.88, and NSE = 0.77 for the validation phase. The proposed deep-conceptual learning-based framework also performed better than the standalone MISD model; the DL method had an MAE = 7.89 (cms), r = 0.90, and NSE = 0.80 for the validation phase when meteorological variables and MISD results were combined as inputs for the DL model. The integrated rainfall-runoff model proposed in this research is a new concept in rainfall-runoff modeling which can be used for accurate streamflow simulations.


  • Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
  • MERGE: ModElling the Regional and Global Earth system
  • BECC: Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in a Changing Climate

Publishing year










Document type

Journal article




  • Water Engineering
  • Physical Geography


  • conceptual hydrological model
  • data-driven model
  • deep learning model
  • runoff simulation




  • ISSN: 2073-4433