The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Default user image.

Babak Mohammadi

Doctoral student

Default user image.

Evaluating the impact of the environment on depleting groundwater resources: a case study from a semi-arid and arid climatic region


  • Khalil Ur Rahman
  • Anwar Hussain
  • Nuaman Ejaz
  • Muhammad Shahid
  • Zheng Duan
  • Babak Mohammadi
  • Pham Ngoc Hoai
  • Quoc Bao Pham
  • Khaled Mohamed Khedher
  • Duong Tran Anh

Summary, in English

This study, for the first time, assesses the impact of critical environmental factors on groundwater using Bayesian network (BN) integrated with analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and develops a groundwater vulnerability map. The considered environmental factors are divided into the following categories: physical (rainfall, temperature (Tmax/Tmin), relative humidity (RHmax/RHmin)), water use and demand (surface water availability (SW) and number of tubewells (NTW)), agriculture and land use (total irrigated area (TIA), total cropped area (TCA), and total area sown (TAS)), and population. Results show a negative relationship of rainfall, RHmax/RHmin, and SW and a positive relationship of the remaining variables with groundwater. Elasticities demonstrate that a 1% change in SW (rainfall), major contributors, results in a decrease by 0.64% (0.55%) in groundwater in Bahawalpur (Multan). A 1% change in population (NTW), major consumers, results in an increase by 0.74% (0.70%) in depth to water table (DWT) across Jhang (Khanewal). The vulnerability map shows that high and very high vulnerability classes account for more than 50% of the total area of Punjab.


  • MERGE: ModElling the Regional and Global Earth system
  • Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science

Publishing year





Hydrological Sciences Journal

Document type

Journal article


Taylor & Francis


  • Water Engineering
  • Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
  • Physical Geography


  • Hydrology
  • Bayesian network (BN)
  • environmental factors
  • groundwater resources
  • Water resources management




  • ISSN: 0262-6667